A Printed Circuit Board (PCB) needs to have many components for it to work. Some of the components for PCB fabrication and their functions are:
1.Capacitor – used to temporarily store electrical energy in an electric field. It has two terminals and is also known as the condenser.
2.Resistor – it also has two terminals, like a capacitor, and its main function is to resist the flow of current inside the circuit. It also lowers the voltage. Too much current flowing inside the circuit may result to a damaged circuit board.
3.Transistor – it is used to regulate current or voltage flow. It switches and amplifies electronic signals and most circuits use this. They universally have 3 leads (or legs) which are named the collector (positive lead), the base (activates the transistor), and the emitter (negative lead).
4.Diodes – are used to allow electricity to flow forward, in one direction, and prohibit flow in the opposite direction. A diode has two electrodes, the cathode (negative electrode) and anode (positive electrode),placed on two different ends.
5.Coils – this is where electricity is induced inside the circuit. On one end is the positive side and the other end is the negative side.
6.SCRs (Silicon Controlled Rectifier) – it triggers the device into conduction by applying a small amount of voltage.
7.ICs (Integrated Circuits) – this is where thousands of resistors, transistors, and capacitors are placed. It is a set of electronic circuits combined into one small plate. It is also a semiconductor.
These components are the basic materials used in PCB fabrication.Once every component has been placed on the board, the next step is to pass it over the heat wave soldering bath so that the components will be ready for soldering.
Here are the specifics of that process:
1.The components are arranged on their correct places before being soldered permanently on the board. The soldering gun is prepared and its temperature can reach up to 800 degrees Fahrenheit. It is advisable to use gloves in this process.
2.During PCB fabrication, unwanted edges and parts are fixed, removed, and polished. Some are placed with the help of a magnifying glass fitted with tube light (to ensure precision).
3.A soldering iron is needed to start this step. The tip of the iron should touch the wires and should be kept there for 3-10 seconds. The solder should then be introduced to the wire and should cover a little part of it. Too much solder causes the wire to be ineffective, losing its function while on the board.
4.When dealing with smaller components, the soldering iron should have a temperature of 625 degrees Fahrenheit. If the amount of solder is enough, it is time to attach the component on the circuit board. Remember that if you apply too much solder on a joint, it will cause a short circuit. On the other hand, if you add too little solder, it might not make a good connection with the board. If there is too much solder applied, quickly wipe it off with a cloth before it hardens. If it already hardened, melt a little of it using the iron, then quickly wipe the excess.
5.Use a sharp wire cutter to cut off the excess leads after all the components have been fixed on the board. Clean it properly and carefully.
6.Test the PCB and ensure that all components are properly placed. Inspect it thoroughly to see if there were any discrepancies or faults to avoid larger issues or accidents during PCB fabrication.
Now that you know the basics of mounting PCB components, you’re a bit more ready to try fabrication firsthand.
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